Introduction Twin Engine Aircrafts

Introduction Twin Engine Aircrafts



In this post we are writing about light twin engines and its peculiarities. In concrete we are talking about twin engines JAR-23/Far-23, which its maximum take off weight in less than 5670 Kg.

As you can see in the graphic there are more accidents in a twin engine plane than in a single engine plane.





Noticed that with a single engine plane the decision making process is much easier than a twin engine aircraft. That´s why it is important to know how to react and which are the differences between single engine plane and twin engine plane.
The Single engine plane performance is explained in previous posts such as light single engine aircraft performance .
To understand how the twin engine aircraft work we must understand the Controllability concept.




Controllability is the ability of the aircraft to respond to control surface displacement and achieve the desired condition of flight.

When the controllability is the most in important?

the twin engine planes are certified to keep certain altitude when they have an engine failure. The first effect in case of engine failure in a twin engine plane is a yaw. Because one engine is pushing and the other is not pushing.




 To keep the plane under control the pilot must apply the rudder pedal to balance that yaw moment.

In other words keep the ball (turn coordinator)  centered.



Other effect is as one engine is pushing the air mass downwards and the other not, that result in more lift in one wing that the other wing, leading in a roll.




Summarizing, an Engine failure in a twin engine results in a yaw and a roll. There are a mnemonic rule for pilots which is : dead engine dead foot, or step the ball.



When an engine failure occurred there is one engine that affects more than the other. This is the critical engine


Why do we have a critical engine?


When the engine is working we have a moment, which is in the opposite direction of the movement of the propeller. This moment it is called TORQUE


When the yaw produced for the working engine adds to the torque. The resulting yaw is stronger. So it makes it more difficult to control it.
when propellers moves to the right , the critical engine is the left one. (propellers to the left, critical engine to the right)









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